Carchemish was a Canaanite city that was important in antiquity. The Battle of Carchemish is considered by historians to be one of the major battles in world history in which the Babylonian army humbled the Assyrian army.
Egypt, under the leadership of Pharaoh Necho, sought to recapture the land of Canaan. However, their attempts to recapture the land would put them in direct conflict with the Babylonian army under the strong hand of King Nebuchadnezzar. The Egyptian and Assyrian armies were devastated by the Babylonian military might displayed at Carchemish in 605 B.C.
The Bible describes the battle in Jeremiah 46:1-12.
3 “Order the buckler and shield, And draw near to battle! 4 Harness the horses, And mount up, you horsemen! Stand forth with your helmets, Polish the spears, Put on the armor! 5 Why have I seen them dismayed and turned back? Their mighty ones are beaten down; They have speedily fled, And did not look back, For fear was all around,” says the Lord. 6 “Do not let the swift flee away, Nor the mighty man escape; They will stumble and fall Toward the north, by the River Euphrates. 7 “Who is this coming up like a flood, Whose waters move like the rivers? 8 Egypt rises up like a flood, And its waters move like the rivers; And he says, ‘I will go up and cover the earth, I will destroy the city and its inhabitants.’ 9 Come up, O horses, and rage, O chariots! And let the mighty men come forth: The Ethiopians and the Libyans who handle the shield, And the Lydians who handle and bend the bow. 10 For this is the day of the Lord God of hosts, A day of vengeance, That He may avenge Himself on His adversaries. The sword shall devour; It shall be satiated and made drunk with their blood; For the Lord God of hosts has a sacrifice In the north country by the River Euphrates. 11 “Go up to Gilead and take balm, O virgin, the daughter of Egypt; In vain you will use many medicines; You shall not be cured. 12 The nations have heard of your shame, And your cry has filled the land; For the mighty man has stumbled against the mighty; They both have fallen together.”
Before Nebuchadnezzar was able to conquer the unprotected lands of Egypt, he was called back to Babylon in order to take the throne after the death of his father. Nebuchadnezzar would later return to Egypt to conquer Egypt, which eventually became a part of the Babylonian Empire.
Babylon also conquered the Jewish kingdom of Judah, conquered Jerusalem, laid waste to King Solomon’s temple, and took the Hebrew people into captivity.